Conscription is still in place in war-torn Israel. Talia, my youngest cousin is due to signed in this coming July. Males serve a minimum of three years whilst females will serve a minimum of twenty one months.
It naturally affects the whole psyche of the country and its people. Many proponents claim that serving in the army bonds the country folk and instils in a strong sense of self-discipline. The former i can understand first-hand – check out the number of Israelis who travel in mass hordes in both Asia and South America. The latter is hard to believe – check out the Israelis who go on huge binges in India.
In more recent years, a number of “refuseniks” have challenged the necessity of compulsory military service.
For more detailed information on this subject, check out this Wikipedia article.